Freedom of speech and academic freedom issues have been discussed above in several places. Typically these issues fall into two categories: freedom of speech protected by cryptosystems, and freedom of speech about cryptosystems. The former has been well covered, but the latter deserves further scrutiny. Essentially at issue is whether writing in a form that machines can read is free speech or unprotected speech. Judges, under the theory that programs act as mechanical devices, sometimes subscribe to the theory that programs have unprotected speech elements to them. Programmers usually subscribe to the theory that computer languages are languages like any other, and their choice to express themselves in that language should not be an impediment to their freedom of speech.